You can follow this instructions to print configuration label on your printer:
It could provide you some idea on a cause of your issue. Say, printer could be in EPL mode.
Also you may need to use some kind of serial linux usb device file instead of /dev/usb/lp0.
However most reliable option would be to use Link-OS Multiplatform SDK for Linux.
Software Engineer, Kutir Mobility
Posted on behalf of Zebra Technologies